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Modals – Class-12

Modals, often referred to as modal verbs or modal auxiliaries, are a vital component of English and play a significant role in conveying nuances in meaning and expressing various degrees of necessity, possibility, permission, and more. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore modals in depth, offering examples in both English and Hindi to illustrate their usage. By the end, you will have a solid grasp of these versatile words that enhance your ability to communicate effectively.

Modals -  Class-12

Modal Verb Definition (मोडल क्रिया की परिभाषा):

A modal verb (modal auxiliary) is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to express necessity, possibility, permission, ability, requests, and more. Modal verbs are always used in conjunction with the base form of a main verb.

Common Modal Verbs (प्रमुख मोडल क्रियाएँ):

English has several modal verbs, including:

  1. Can (सकना):
    • Meaning: Expresses the ability or possibility to do something.
    • Example:
      • English: “I can swim.”
      • Hindi: “मुझे तैरना आता है।”
  2. Could (सकता था):
    • Meaning: Represents past ability or polite requests.
    • Example:
      • English: “She could speak three languages.”
      • Hindi: “उसको तीन भाषाएँ बोल सकती थी।”
  3. May (सकता है):
    • Meaning: Expresses permission or possibility.
    • Example:
      • English: “May I borrow your pen?”
      • Hindi: “क्या मैं आपकी कलम उधार ले सकता हूँ?”
  4. Might (संभावना है):
    • Meaning: Indicates a lower possibility or a more tentative suggestion.
    • Example:
      • English: “It might rain later.”
      • Hindi: “बाद में शायद बारिश हो सकती है।”
  5. Shall (करूंगा):
    • Meaning: Used to express a suggestion, offer, or a future action.
    • Example:
      • English: “Shall we go to the movies?”
      • Hindi: “हम क्या चलें फिल्म देखने?”
  6. Should (करना चाहिए):
    • Meaning: Indicates an obligation, advice, or a recommendation.
    • Example:
      • English: “You should eat your vegetables.”
      • Hindi: “तुम्हें अपने सब्जियाँ खानी चाहिए।”
  7. Will (करूँगा):
    • Meaning: Expresses future actions or predictions.
    • Example:
      • English: “I will call you later.”
      • Hindi: “मैं तुम्हें बाद में फ़ोन करूँगा।”
  8. Would (करूँगा था):
    • Meaning: Often used for polite requests or expressing past habits.
    • Example:
      • English: “Would you please pass the salt?”
      • Hindi: “क्या आप कृपया नमक पास कर सकते हैं?”
  9. Must (आवश्यक है):
    • Meaning: Indicates a strong necessity or obligation.
    • Example:
      • English: “You must complete the assignment.”
      • Hindi: “तुम्हें कार्य समाप्त करना है।”
  10. Ought to (चाहिए):
    • Meaning: Suggests a moral or advisable course of action.
    • Example:
      • English: “You ought to be kind to others.”
      • Hindi: “तुम्हें दूसरों के प्रति दयालु होना चाहिए।”

Modal Verbs and Their Functions

Modals serve various functions in sentences. Let’s explore their usage and meanings:

  1. Ability (क्षमता): Modals like ‘can,’ ‘could,’ and ‘be able to’ express a person’s ability or capacity to do something.Examples (उदाहरण):
    • English: “She can sing beautifully.”
      • Hindi: “वह खूबसुरती से गा सकती है।”
  2. Permission (अनुमति): Modals such as ‘may,’ ‘can,’ and ‘could’ are used to seek or grant permission.Examples (उदाहरण):
    • English: “May I come in?”
      • Hindi: “क्या मैं अंदर आ सकता हूँ?”
    • English: “You can use my laptop.”
      • Hindi: “तुम मेरे लैपटॉप का उपयोग कर सकते हो।”
  3. Necessity (आवश्यकता): Modal verbs like ‘must,’ ‘have to,’ and ‘need to’ express necessity or obligation.Examples (उदाहरण):
    • English: “You must complete your homework.”
      • Hindi: “तुम्हें अपना होमवर्क पूरा करना होगा।”
    • English: “I have to catch the train.”
      • Hindi: “मुझे ट्रेन पकड़नी है।”
  4. Possibility (संभावना): Modals like ‘may,’ ‘might,’ and ‘could’ express possibility or uncertainty.Examples (उदाहरण):
    • English: “It may rain this evening.”
      • Hindi: “शायद आज शाम को बारिश हो सकती है।”
    • English: “He could be at the library.”
      • Hindi: “वह पुस्तकालय में हो सकता है।”
  5. Requests (अनुरोध): Modals like ‘can,’ ‘could,’ and ‘will’ are used to make requests or offers.Examples (उदाहरण):
    • English: “Could you please pass the salt?”
      • Hindi: “क्या आप कृपया नमक पास कर सकते हैं?”
    • English: “Will you help me with this task?”
      • Hindi: “क्या आप मेरी इस कार्य में मदद करेंगे?”

Modals are versatile tools that allow you to express necessity, possibility, permission, and various shades of meaning in your sentences. By mastering the use of modal verbs, you can communicate more effectively and add depth to your language skills, both in English and Hindi. Whether you are making requests, discussing abilities, or considering possibilities, modals are your key to conveying your thoughts with precision and clarity.

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